Israel is a parliamentary, unitary republic located to the east of the Mediterranean Sea. It is a riparian to state to the Jordan River Basin and is dependent on the basin for a large portion of its water resources.
Identifying as the homeland of the Jewish people, the modern state of Israel was established in 1948, and in 2010 had a population of 7,695,100. Contentious relations with the Palestinians of Gaza and the West Bank as well as surrounding Arab states have been a major factor in Israel's social, political, and economic development. Currently, the armed forces of Israel occupy sections of the Palestinian West Bank, the [formerly] Syrian Golan Heights, and external borders of the Gaza Strip. Israel has achieved a high performance in a number of diverse industries, with its GDP reaching 813 billion in 2010.
Area: 22,072 km2 (including annexed East Jerusalem and Golan Heights Latitude: Between 29° N and 33° N Climate: Arid (Southern and Eastern areas); Mediterranean (remainder of country) Annual Rainfall (Maximum): 1,040 mm in Newe Ativ (2009/2010) Annual Rainfall (Minimum): 25 mm in Elat (2009/2010)
Major Rivers and Streams:
Rivers: The Jordan River Streams: Alexander, Besor, Hadera, Yarqon, Sa'ar, Qishon, Soreq
- Domestic Consumption: 685 mcm
- Agricultural Consumption: 1,016 mcm
- Industrial: 110 mcm
The coastal aquifer (also referred to as the "seashore" aquifer) runs from the Lebanon border to the Gaza strip, and is capable of producing approximately 700 mcm/year.
The mountain aquifer, shared with the Palestinian West Bank, is capable of producing 450 mcm/year.
The so called "fossil aquifers" of the Negev desert (also known as desert springs) which produce varying quantities of often saline water.
Mekorot Water Company (Total): 1,085 mcm
- Wells: 555 mcm
- Hamovil Water Carrier: 133 mcm
- Upper Water: 178 mcm
- Effluents and Dan Region Reclamation Project: 219 mcm
Other Producers (Total): 616 mcm
- Wells: 279 mcm
- Upper Water: 168 mcm
- Effluents: 169 mcm
Desalination fo sea water: 148 mcm
Major Infrastructure and Water Development
National Water Carrier
Israel's National Water Carrier (NWC) was built from 1956 to 1964 for the purpose of carrying water from the Sea of Galilee (Kinneret) to the Negev Desert. Today, approximately 80% of the water is used for political consumption.
- ^ Central Bureau of Statistics, Israel, "Israel in Figures 2011", available at: "http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Facts+About+Israel/IsraelFigures/", p. 6.
- ^ Israel in Figures, 18
- ^ Israel in Figures, 5, 8
- ^ Israel in Figures
- ^ Israel in Figures, 21
- ^ 6.0 6.1 6.2 Cohen, Nathan, "Israel's National Water Carrier", Present Environment and Sustainable Development, NR. 2, 2008, p. 17.
- ^ Israel in Figures, 21
- ^ Cohen, Nathan, "Israel's National Water Carrier", Present Environment and Sustainable Development, NR. 2, 2008.
Case Studies Related to Israel
- Gaza Strip Water Management
- Integrated Management and Negotiations for Equitable Allocation of Flow of the Jordan River Among Riparian States
- The Role of the Red Sea-Dead Sea Water Conveyance Project for Regional Cooperation in the Jordan River Basin
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