The Boundary Waters Treaty (BWT)

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About The Boundary Waters Treaty (BWT)

Signed: 1909/01/11

Agreement Type: non-binding, trans-national, sub-national, treaty

Included in Agreement
Riparians - Canada, The United States of America
Water Resources - The Great Lakes, The St. Lawrence River, The St. Mary and Milk Rivers

All Facts about The Boundary Waters Treaty (BWT)


The Boundary Waters treaty was signed in 1909 by the U.S. and Canada to create an institutional framework for the use and management of transboundary water resources and provide mechanisms for resolving disputes over these resources.[1] The treaty outlines equal and similar rights to transboundary waters to the U.S. and Canada, including the complete freedom of use so long as said use does not affect flows or water levels or cause pollution in the other country. The treaty also mandates the creation of the International Joint Commission as an institution for managing transboundary water issues and conflicts, and outlines the powers and responsibilities of the commission. The treaty also made specific apportionments with regard to disputes on the St. Marys, Milk, and Niagara rivers. It also established an order of precedence between uses of transboundary waters, which are as follows:

1) Use for domestic and sanitary purposes

2) Uses for navigation

3) Uses for hydropower and irrigation


History


The boundary waters treaty was created to address the need for cooperative management of water resources across the U.S. Canada border, made obvious by water conflicts in the great lakes and prairie regions in the early 1900's. These included disagreements over hydroelectric development in the St. Marys and Niagara rivers in the great lakes region and the St. Marys and milk rivers in the prairie region. the international waterways commission was created in 1905 to facilitate cooperation in the great lakes region, and with its limited success suggested the need for larger and more comprehensive institutions facilitating cooperation between the two governments.[2] This led to the drafting of the Boundary waters Treaty in 1909.

Case Studies Related to this Agreement


Articles linked to this Agreement

Riparians Water Features

Agreement includes riparian- Canada, The United States of America


Includes Water Resource- The Great Lakes, The St. Lawrence River, The St. Mary and Milk Rivers


Projects and Initiatives Agreements and Treaties


Associated organizational projects- The International Joint Commission (IJC)






External Links

  1. ^ Heinmiller, B.T. 2008. The Boundary Waters Treat and Canada-U.S. Relations in Abundance and Scarcity. The Wayne Law Review 54:4, 1499-1524.
  2. ^ Heinmiller, B.T. 2008. The Boundary Waters Treat and Canada-U.S. Relations in Abundance and Scarcity. The Wayne Law Review 54:4, 1499-1524.