The headwaters of the Ganges and its tributaries lie primarily in Nepal and India, where snow and rainfall are heaviest. Average annual flow is 971 km3 per year and flows through multiple riparian states including: China, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, and Nepal. 
- Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database (TFDD) (2012). Oregon State University. Ganges River Basin Case Study — This website is used to aid in the assessment of the process of water conflict prevention and resolution. Over the years we have developed this Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database, a project of the Oregon State University Department of Geosciences, in collaboration with the Northwest Alliance for Computational Science and Engineering.
- ^ Product of the Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database, Department of Geosciences, Oregon State University. Additional information about the TFDD can be found at: http://www.transboundarywaters.orst.edu/research/case_studies/Ganges_New.htm