The Euphrates originates in the eastern highlands of Turkey and is 1,700 mi (2740km) long in total. It is formed by the confluence of the Kara and the Murad Rivers within Turkey and flows generally south through Turkey into Syria, then South-East through Iraq, where it joins in the South-East of Iraq to form the Shatt al-Arab River which finally flows into the Persian Gulf. The Euphrates is navigable only by shallow-draft vessels. The upper course, through the highlands of Turkey, flows rapidly through canyons and gorges. The middle Euphrates, through Syria, traverses a wide floodplain; many routes are not perennial and irrigation is prevalent. As the Euphrates enters Iraq, the river loses velocity. In North Iraq there are islands that stud the river, some with remains of ancient settlements upon them. The Euphrates divides into many channels, forming marshland and Lake Hammar before merging with the Tigris at Basra, Iraq.
The Euphrates river flows through multiple riparian states including: Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Turkey.
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- Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database (TFDD) (2012). Oregon State University. Tigris-Euphrates Case Study — The Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database (TFDD) This website is used to aid in the assessment of the process of water conflict prevention and resolution. Over the years we have developed this Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database, a project of the Oregon State University Department of Geosciences, in collaboration with the Northwest Alliance for Computational Science and Engineering.
- ^ The Euphrates River. The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.
- ^ Product of the Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database, Department of Geosciences, Oregon State University. Additional information about the TFDD can be found at:http://www.transboundarywaters.orst.edu/research/case_studies/Tigris-Euphrates_New.htm